Hydrogeological and Environmental Relations between the Mediterranean Sea, The Saladar and Bitter Water Aquifer (Alicante province). Impact of Desalination Operations in Alicante I and II and Corrective Measures.

Autor/es: Alhama Manteca, Iván

Año de lectura: 2011

Universidad: Polytechnic University of Cartagena

Departamento: Ingenieria Minera, Geológica y Cartográfica


Saladar Bitter Water, located south of Alicante, lies on a coastal aquifer of the same name in recent decades has been the scene of two successive human actions: the activity of a salt industry and exploitation for the supply Alicante desalination plants I and II. These interventions have significantly conditioned both the hydrochemistry of groundwater salinity is higher as a result of ancient salt, such as flow rate, through the cones pumping extraction wells desalination plants. In addition, the salt is linked to a wetland of ecological interest. To track piezometric and water chemical aquifer Commonwealth Taibilla Channel (body managing the operation of desalination plants), in collaboration with the UPCT designed a network of control over the salt marsh and its surroundings . Since May 2008, made a monthly record of piezometric and electrical conductivity, providing the data discussed in this work.
In this thesis we investigate the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical regime of the aquifer and develops a conceptual model of operation. First, we characterized the environment of the study area in relation to its climate, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using existing bibliographic information, and describes the headworks of the desalination plants. Then, from the reports of the investigation phase prior to construction of desalination plants and new geological information field campaigns, the coastal aquifer is characterized Bitter Water: aquifer type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness , length, etc.. To assess the responses of the aquifer compared to records of rainfall, abstractions and discharges of water on the salt sea, has integrated this information with data on monthly campaigns piezometric control and chemical quality. In parallel, in order to understand the processes of mixing and the origin of the waters, there have been chemical and isotopic analysis to samples of rainwater and groundwater at various points. With all that has developed a conceptual model of functioning of the aquifer and water balance. In support of this study was performed 3-D model of flow and transport SEAWAT with the aim of explaining and interpreting qualitative and less quantitative, the processes occurring in the aquifer, whether motivated by human actions or natural . Also included is a study of the physical characterization of 2-D scenarios of saltwater intrusion in the presence of nearby salt marshes.
Finally, we describe the ecological values ​​of wetland and evaluated the effect of the activity of desalination and recovery plan with sea water spills on the piezometric and salinity, assessing the possibility of implementing these measures in other similar scenarios.