CTE Spanish System
The impact that technology and innovation on the competitiveness and economic development is something that is now widely recognized. And so is the need for adequate systems of science, technology and business to enable more efficient use of resources. All governments have among their priorities to promote and enhance these activities and enable more effective operation of the system.
The EU, concerned about the situation in Europe in this area compared to the U.S. and Japan, agreed at the European summit in Barcelona in March 2002 that expenditure on R & D of the EU average in 2010 reached 3% of GDP. This entails the implementation of active policies to enable science and technology systems, dynamic and flexible to eliminate obstacles to the transformation of scientific realities in the production environment.
The current Spanish System of Science, Technology and Enterprise was established as a result the adoption of the "Law of Science, 1986. Act which, among its fundamental objectives, aims at better coordination between different actors in the system. In this sense, the law affects the role of public research institutions (PRIs), especially in the Superior Council for Scientific Research, and relationships with each other enterprises.
The Spanish System of Science, Technology and Enterprise includes all institutions and agencies, public or private ownership dedicated to the generation of knowledge through research and development and / or use of this in the productive sector, as well as to all rules, norms, traditions, etc., in relation to these matters prevail in society.
In general, there are four distinct elements: business, government, public R & D and support infrastructure. These four elements should be added a fifth would be formed by what is called the environment, ie, the set of institutions that have independent existence apart from the innovation, but whose development and regulation affect the innovation process, as is the case the educational system or the financial system.
- Public R+D+I
- Organizations supporting the R & D
- Businesses: Businesses are key not only because they are the real innovators but also the importance of their relationships with the public R & D. In this sense, it is noteworthy that the public should take into account the capabilities of the business and innovation needs. For their part, companies in addition to providing financial resources, needs to be moved to the generators of science and technology so they can focus their work on finding solutions. Increase the number of Spanish companies to carry out systematic technological developments and greater use of results of R & D by companies is one of the objectives of the current National Plan I + D + I, Plan to which we will refer later in this topic.
- Public Administration: Currently, one of the most important functions performed by the governments of European countries under its system of science and technology is to actively support the process of technological innovation. Among the main justifications for this public support for innovation is the public good and the inherent risk involved any research process. In this sense, whether publicly Administration should encourage companies to achieve the optimal level of investment in R + D + I, according to their own benefit and the externalities that are generated for the rest of the economy.
The important role of government is embodied in the following: to foster the role of business, provide legal and macroeconomic framework that allows for greater coordination of scientific and technological tasks of public and private sectors, and create special purpose entities that energize the framework.
In the Spanish case, under the designation P UBLIC Administration as part of the science and technology includes all public agencies, state, regional, local and European, by appropriate legislation, seeking promotion of technological innovation an avenue for the pursuit of greater social welfare, maintaining or improving the capacity and competitive position of companies.
The Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) is the organ of the State Administration for coordination of science and technology policy.
Figure 1. Structure of the Ministry of Science and Innovation
To reinforce this policy of integration has been necessary to adapt the institutional environment. Thus, the new Ministry ascribed important organs of coordination and evaluation. In this regard, include the Anchor of Science and Technology (CICYT) and the National Evaluation Agency (ANEP).
Among the innovations to be highlighted within the public administration officials is the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT), which was created by agreement of the Council of Ministers in April 2001 by the MCYT, and operates as a nonprofit entity with functional autonomy.
In the Autonomous Regions, the Autonomous Communities have also driven standards for the promotion and coordination of scientific and technical research, which in some cases have the force of law and other regulatory nature. All autonomous regions have already adopted some form of legislation in this area, both content material and organizational nature and all have specific research plans and / or organizations dedicated to promoting research (Instituto Tecnologico de Aragon, Council Advisory Research and Technological Development of Galicia, Basque Technology, among others).
Figure 2. CTE National System Structure
Also, the Science Act establishes the National Plan of Scientific Research and Technological Development for the promotion and general coordination of scientific and technical research for the State, and creates the Interministerial Commission of Science and Technology (CICYT) and body planning, coordinating and monitoring the National Plan. The National Plan is well conceived as an integrating mechanism that should set the main objectives in R & D to multi-year periods and manage activities to achieve them in programs to be performed by different ministerial departments with responsibilities in this area.
Plan Nacional de I+D+i 2008-2011